Book chapter

A framework of city diplomacy on positive outcomes and negative emotional engagement : How to enhance the international role of cities and city/mayor branding on Twitter?


  • 2020
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  • City Diplomacy / Amiri, Sohaela ; Sevin, Efe. - 2020, p. 83-109
English This chapter first conceptualizes the phenomenon of “negative emotional engagement” (understood as unfavorable behavior toward organizations; see Lievonen et al., The handbook of communication engagement. Wiley, New York, 2018) and introduces a framework for assessing it in relation to city diplomacy and city branding. Second, we demonstrate that negative emotional engagement can have measurable positive outcomes. In the empirical section, we use a mixed-methods case study approach applying content and sentiment analysis to understand how mayoral messages from the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group cross the boundary to the ‘dark side’ by publicly discussing and criticizing President Trump’s decision to leave the Paris climate change agreement. The study illustrates recent phenomena of negative emotional engagement (Lievonen et al., The handbook of communication engagement. Wiley, New York, 2018) and new diplomatic functions of cities (city diplomacy) that leverage city branding. Social media messages and press releases show how mayors, citizens and associations engage with the issue of climate change through disapproving of policies, leading them to be more active in bringing about local changes. This study shows how negative emotional engagements tend to use the rhetoric of a common enemy to motivate people to take participative actions, thus also showing the positive aspects of city diplomacy.
Faculté des sciences économiques et sociales et du management
Département des sciences de la communication et des médias
  • English
Information, communication and media sciences
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