Journal article

CPG graphs : Some Structural and Hardness Results

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  • Discrete Applied Mathematics. - Elsevier. - 2021, vol. 290, p. 17-35
English In this paper we continue the systematic study of Contact graphs of Paths on a Grid (CPG graphs) initiated in Deniz et al. (2018). A CPG graph is a graph for which there exists a collection of pairwise interiorly disjoint paths on a grid in one-to-one correspondence with its vertex set such that two vertices are adjacent if and only if the corresponding paths touch at a grid-point. If every such path has at most k bends for some k ≥ 0, the graph is said to be Bk-CPG. We first show that, for any k ≥ 0, the class of Bk-CPG graphs is strictly contained in the class of Bk+1-CPG graphs even within the class of planar graphs, thus implying that there exists no k ≥ 0 such that every planar CPG graph is Bk-CPG. The main result of the paper is that recognizing CPG graphs and Bk-CPG graphs with k ≥ 1 is NP-complete. Moreover, we show that the same remains true even within the class of planar graphs in the case k ≥ 3. We then consider several graph problems restricted to CPG graphs and show, in particular, that Independent Set and Clique Cover remain NP-hard for B0-CPG graphs. Finally, we consider the related classes Bk-EPG of edge-intersection graphs of paths with at most k bends on a grid. Although it is possible to optimally color a B0- EPG graph in polynomial time, as this class coincides with that of interval graphs, we show that, in contrast, 3-Colorability is NP-complete for B1-EPG graphs.
Faculté des sciences économiques et sociales et du management
Département d'informatique
  • English
Computer science and technology
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