Journal article

CX 3 CR1-CX 3 CL1-dependent cell-to-cell Japanese encephalitis virus transmission by human microglial cells

  • Lannes, Nils Unit of Anatomy, Department of Medicine, University of Fribourg, Switzerland
  • Garcia-Nicolàs, Obdullio Institute of Virology and Immunology, Switzerland - Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Switzerland
  • Démoulins, Thomas Institute of Virology and Immunology, Switzerland - Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Switzerland
  • Summerfield, Artur Institute of Virology and Immunology, Switzerland - Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Switzerland
  • Filgueira, Luis Unit of Anatomy, Department of Medicine, University of Fribourg, Switzerland
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    18.03.2019
Published in:
  • Scientific Reports. - 2019, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 4833
English The neurotropic Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is responsible for Japanese encephalitis, an uncontrolled inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Microglia cells are the unique innate immune cell type populating the brain that cross- communicate with neurons via the CX3CR1-CX3CL1 axis. However, microglia may serve as a viral reservoir for JEV. Human microglia are able to transmit JEV infectivity to neighbouring cells in a cell-to-cell contact-dependent manner. Using JEV-treated human blood monocyte-derived microglia, the present study investigates molecular mechanisms behind cell-to-cell virus transmission by human microglia. For that purpose, JEV-associated microglia were co-cultured with JEV susceptible baby hamster kidney cells under various conditions. Here, we show that microglia hosting JEV for up to 10 days were able to transmit the virus to susceptible cells. Interestingly, neutralizing anti-JEV antibodies did not completely abrogate cell-to-cell virus transmission. Hence, intracellular viral RNA could be a contributing source of infectious virus material upon intercellular interactions. Importantly, the CX3CL1- CX3CR1 axis was a key regulator of cell-to-cell virus transmission from JEV-hosting human microglia. Our findings suggest that human microglia may be a source of infection for neuronal populations and sustain JEV brain pathogenesis in long-term infection. Moreover, the present work emphasizes on the critical role of the CX3CR1- CX3CL1 axis in JEV pathogenesis mediating transmission of infectious genomic JEV RNA.
Faculty
Faculté des sciences et de médecine
Department
Département de Médecine
Language
  • English
Classification
Biology
License
License undefined
Identifiers
Persistent URL
https://folia.unifr.ch/unifr/documents/307679
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