Journal article

Establishing nonlinearity thresholds with ultraintense X-ray pulses

  • Szlachetko, Jakub Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland - Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland
  • Hoszowska, Joanna Department of Physics, University of Fribourg, Switzerland
  • Dousse, Jean-Claude Department of Physics, University of Fribourg, Switzerland
  • Nachtegaal, Maarten Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland
  • Błachucki, Wojciech Department of Physics, University of Fribourg, Switzerland
  • Kayser, Yves Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland
  • Sà, Jacinto Department of Chemistry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden - Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
  • Messerschmidt, Marc Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, USA - NSF BioXFEL STC, Buffalo, USA
  • Boutet, Sebastien Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, USA
  • Williams, Garth J. Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, USA - Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY USA
  • David, Christian Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland
  • Smolentsev, Grigory Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland
  • Bokhoven, Jeroen A. van Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland - Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, Switzerland
  • Patterson, Bruce D. Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland
  • Penfold, Thomas J. Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland
  • Knopp, Gregor Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland
  • Pajek, Marek Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland
  • Abela, Rafael Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland
  • Milne, Christopher J. Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland
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    13.09.2016
Published in:
  • Scientific Reports. - 2016, vol. 6, p. 33292
English X-ray techniques have evolved over decades to become highly refined tools for a broad range of investigations. Importantly, these approaches rely on X-ray measurements that depend linearly on the number of incident X-ray photons. The advent of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) is opening the ability to reach extremely high photon numbers within ultrashort X-ray pulse durations and is leading to a paradigm shift in our ability to explore nonlinear X-ray signals. However, the enormous increase in X-ray peak power is a double-edged sword with new and exciting methods being developed but at the same time well-established techniques proving unreliable. Consequently, accurate knowledge about the threshold for nonlinear X-ray signals is essential. Herein we report an X-ray spectroscopic study that reveals important details on the thresholds for nonlinear X-ray interactions. By varying both the incident X-ray intensity and photon energy, we establish the regimes at which the simplest nonlinear process, two-photon X-ray absorption (TPA), can be observed. From these measurements we can extract the probability of this process as a function of photon energy and confirm both the nature and sub-femtosecond lifetime of the virtual intermediate electronic state.
Faculty
Faculté des sciences
Department
Physique
Language
  • English
Classification
Physics
License
License undefined
Identifiers
Persistent URL
https://folia.unifr.ch/unifr/documents/305217
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