Journal article

Variational ground states of the two-dimensional Hubbard model

Published in:
  • New Journal of Physics. - 2009, vol. 11, p. 075010
English Recent refinements of analytical and numerical methods have improved our understanding of the ground-state phase diagram of the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model. Here, we focus on variational approaches, but comparisons with both quantum cluster and Gaussian Monte Carlo methods are also made. Our own ansatz leads to an antiferromagnetic ground state at half filling with a slightly reduced staggered order parameter (as compared to simple mean-field theory). Away from half filling, we find d-wave superconductivity, but confined to densities where the Fermi surface passes through the antiferromagnetic zone boundary (if hopping between both nearest-neighbour and next-nearest-neighbour sites is considered). Our results agree surprisingly well with recent numerical studies using the quantum cluster method. An interesting trend is found by comparing gap parameters Δ (antiferromagnetic or superconducting) obtained with different variational wave functions. Δ varies by an order of magnitude and thus cannot be taken as a characteristic energy scale. In contrast, the order parameter is much less sensitive to the degree of sophistication of the variational schemes, at least at and near half filling.
Faculté des sciences
  • English
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